The CiA 437 application profile defines the CANopen interfaces for photovoltaic (PV) control systems. This includes interfaces to PV controllers, PV inverters, wind direction sensors, temperature sensors, radiation sensors, energy sensors, power sensors, solar panel tracking systems, etc. The three-part specification comprises general definitions, pre-defined communication objects, and process data specification. When implementing the profile, device manufacturers may supply diverse applications using the same electronic CANopen interface implementation and simply adapting the required functionality. A system designer may combine CANopen devices from different manufacturers implementing the required profile-compliant functionality. The according spare parts are then also available from different sources. For development, analysis, and maintenance of the devices, off-the-shelf CANopen tools may be used.